The market of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like several various other industries, has actually changed significantly in the last few years. Although the fundamental formulations have undergone minor adjustments, the production modern technologies have transformed substantially (this applies especially to the approaches of forming tiny products and also floor tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it appears appropriate to state just these changes, however much more on those later put on details dishes.
Various teams of confectionery products call for specific molding methods to ensure that they can be wrapped as well as packaged in the most ideal method to buy. Most likely the most successful development was the bread bar. These bars enable you to utilize cost-effective techniques of manufacturing, packaging as well as screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were recognizable improvements in the product packaging – both in the materials made use of as well as in the sealing techniques. Most of benches in order to guarantee lengthy service life, to safeguard against insect damages and also contamination need safety packaging. We consider these factors in separate phases.
We have actually currently thought about the production of chocolate, and also for that reason it is clear that chocolate as well as facility lusters have a mostly fatty basis, their wetness material is very reduced (usually less than 1%), as well as the components are not in liquid solution.
In numerous confectionery procedures, the dissolving ability of sugar (sucrose) is considered independently or in combination with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and also invert sugar. There are 2 primary groups of sugar confectionery items: a) products in which sugar is completely dissolved, and also b) items in which sugar is partly liquified, and partly existing in the form of tiny strong crystals suspended in solution. These items might be customized with other active ingredients (for instance, milk as well as fats). The very first team consists of hard candy, tough and soft milk sweets, toffee as well as most jelly sweets. The 2nd team consists of products such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline framework.
Summary confectionery manufacturing technologies
Listed below we will certainly see that all the variety of structures obtained is an outcome of using various technological processes and also formulations, every one of which need special techniques for the formation of individual items. Here we take a look at general modern technology problems, as well as see their details uses in various other areas of this book.
Smearing and also cutting
The maker is outfitted with cooled rolls, which enable you to feed the item straight from the tool, where it is prepared, to the plate forming tools. After molding and also lamination, the plates are fed to a cooling device, and after that to traditional reducing gadgets and also spreaders. After that the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the earliest method of producing bars (floor tiles) as well as private items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat and also numerous pastes. A confectionery item in an ideal plastic state, figured out by its moisture, fat material or temperature level, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the required thickness. This plate is then fed to cutting devices to generate wide strips, which are then cut into slim ceramic tiles or bars. Currently, the warm product is fed to cooled down rolls, permitting to get multilayer plates. Home plates are constantly cut into strips that travel through the (” spreading out equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small items. An instance of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is utilized for the production of sweets, fondant and also jelly sweets, some sorts of milk candies and fudge, marshmallows and other products that can be gotten in liquid type.
Some items in liquid form may be formed at a temperature of about 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lubricant”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These products are typically cast into cells formed in starch (see below the section “Fondant shells”). A more recent growth is the automatic precipitation as well as removal of fondant shells and a few other confectionery items using steel mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the rainfall of caramel and also toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has distinct buildings and also is resistant to fairly heats, common for the production of caramel confectionery.
This approach uses practically specifically to sweet sugar and also some sorts of toffee. The common flavored candies, desserts with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The production concept is to cool the made syrup under controlled problems up until it gets to a ductile state. In this state, the product is transformed right into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up products (normally of a particular form or with a pattern) are obtained from it. The resulting items are quickly sent out to the cooling closet as well as wrapping maker.
To obtain some sorts of sugar and chewy candies, a version of this approach is utilized, in which the harness obtained in a comparable means is fed to a cutting-wrapping machine, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, small items are cut from it that come to the covering maker.
Extrusion as well as molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the manufacturing of several non-food products, has actually been efficiently applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this process to the production of different items– from soft materials such as marshmallows and also fondant sweets to really plastic nougat as well as milk delicious chocolates– is explained in  In this situation, the product based on extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle opening profile establishes the form of the final product, as well as several extruders are geared up with a variety of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or little pieces. In fig. 19.2 shows various rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for cutting off tiny items from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 reveals the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum and also chewing candy.
The style of the NID bar extruder is somewhat different. The feeding is executed by grooved rollers in the same way as in other extruders, yet the material to be formed is fed to a 2nd account roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to ensure easy separation of the product and is made use of to form the bars into the required shape. The pins help eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from one more confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with various other constant manufacturing and glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery must observe certain safety measures.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature is of fundamental significance, especially in the case of milk sweet and also nougat, the uniformity of which is highly depending on temperature. Little fluctuations in temperature can cause huge adjustments in extrusion stress. For soft milk sugary foods, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally made use of, yet much relies on the kind of item, as well as the specific temperature level.
Tour conditions need to be figured out empirically. Reduced temperature levels as well as high pressures cause ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides throughout extrusion, this signifies bad emulsification. Renovation is accomplished when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the solution.
Destruction after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their form, as well as the strip, which is virtually cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may end up being visibly flatter. This is because of several reasons:.
too expensive a wetness web content;.
It was not emulsified fat and also might be as well soft;.
the healthy protein of any type of dairy ingredient is not properly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has actually developed or has actually been damaged by too much stirring after crystal development. This problem can be really refined, and also in continuous fudge manufacturing, its look relies on the minute the crystallizing lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is feasible to establish the optimum conditions for a particular devices only experimentally. Firms focusing on the manufacturing of extrusion tools have actually carried out a large amount of research study in the design of makers for the extrusion of confectionery items of numerous uniformities. For some items – such as gummies as well as eating periodontal – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These innovations are explained in various other sections of guide.
The concept of panning is already defined in Phase 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – tough and also loosened. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and also syrup are developed on the preferred body (for instance, nuts) and also dried with cozy air death between the applied layers. Loose knurling is executed in a comparable method, however making use of chilly modern technology. Soft shells are used (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), as well as the finish is made of sugar (or glucose) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After getting to the wanted dimension and weight of the finish, the sweets are partly dried out and also covered with glaze. The procedure is completely mechanized, including loading and discharging the containers, automatic spraying of syrups (or delicious chocolate), and also control of drying out or cooling air to the containers.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is generally signified in English by the word “creme” (lotion), however some standard items utilize the choice “cream”, as well as in different countries it is called in a different way.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar as well as glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to an option containing concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this solution is supersaturated with sugar and also unpredictable, and also if it is swiftly stirred and also cooled down, after that the excess sugar befalls of the service in the form of small crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a solid phase of sugar crystals put on hold in a liquid stage containing a saturated option of “sugars”.
Without blending and cooling down huge crystals are formed. Whipping in itself gives unsuitable results, since a huge quantity of latent heat of condensation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, crystallization slows down and succeeding slow-moving air conditioning results in the development of big crystals. Fondant of high quality ought to be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing only sugar, which was dissolved in water as well as concentrated by steaming to about the degree of 88-90% ST. Since the solubility of sugar at typical temperatures is just 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is really unpredictable and also crystallizes upon quick cooling, “offering” huge crystals.
To conquer this downside, an additive was made use of that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar and also boosted the overall solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are used therefore ingredients. The development of invert sugar from sugar is gone over in an additional chapter, but right here we just keep in mind that such additives disintegrate part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and fructose. Fructose is much more soluble (regarding 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its visibility with dextrose enables the focused syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is really undependable, considering that the amount of invert sugar developed differs substantially relying on the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and the hardness of the water utilized. Ideal outcomes are acquired by adding to the sugar syrup a specific quantity of invert sugar, prepared separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar and also invert sugar, has a granular framework and is really pleasant in taste (it is hardly ever made use of in contemporary confectionery manufacturing). Glucose (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is much less pleasant, and also the visibility of complex carbohydrates regulates the formation of crystals as well as offers a much more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loose (crunchy) structure.